Although heart attack and stroke are considered silent killers, recent studies show that such attacks can be prevented and the number of deaths has lessened because of the technological and pharmacological advances in modern medicine.
The best prevention against heart disease and stroke is to understand the risks and treatment options. The greatest risk is ignorance or misinformation. The first step is to take responsibility for our health.
A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, usually by a blood clot. Without oxygenated blood, the heart muscle begins to die. A stroke is a brain attack, cutting off vital blood flow and oxygen to the brain. Stroke happens when a blood vessel feeding the brain gets clogged or bursts.
Heart Attack Warning Signs
Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, causing someone to gasp dramatically, clutch her heart and drop to the ground. No one has any doubts about what’s happening. But most heart attacks start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. Often the people affected aren’t sure what’s wrong and wait too long before getting help.
Here are some of the signs that can mean a heart attack is happening:
- Chest Discomfort – Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.
- Discomfort in Other Areas of the Upper Body – Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.
- Shortness of Breath – This feeling may occur with or without chest discomfort.
- Other Signs of Discomfort – These may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.
Women’s Heart Attack Symptoms
As with men, women’s most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfort. But women are somewhat more likely than men to experience some of the other common symptoms, particularly:
- Pain between or behind shoulder blades
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Back or jaw pain
If you or someone you are with has chest discomfort, especially with one or more of the other signs, don’t wait longer than five minutes before calling 9-1-1 for help.
Stroke Warning Signs
Stroke is a medical emergency. Learn to recognize a stroke, because time lost is brain lost. Warning signs include:
- Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body
- Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding
- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
- Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
Not all these warning signs occur in every stroke. If you or someone with you has one or more stroke symptoms that last more than a few minutes, don’t delay to bring the patient to the hospital or call a doctor.
HOW TO PREVENT HEART DISEASE AND STROKE
Make these small changes to your daily routine, and they add up to a powerful dose of heart disease prevention—no coronary care units or intra-aortic balloon pumps required:
- Riding a bike 20 minutes a day – When German researchers had 100 men with mild chest pain, or angina, either exercise 20 minutes a day on a stationary bike or undergo an artery-clearing procedure called angioplasty, they found that a year after the angioplasty, 21 men suffered a heart attack, stroke, or other problem compared to only 6 of the bikers. Just remember that if you already have angina, you should only begin an exercise program under medical supervision.
- Eat a piece of dark chocolate several times a week – Believe it or not, several small studies suggest dark chocolate could be good for your heart! The beneficial effects are likely due to chemicals in chocolate called flavonoids, which help arteries stay flexible. Other properties of the sweet stuff seem to make arteries less likely to clot and prevent the “bad” cholesterol, LDL, from oxidizing, making it less likely to form plaque. Dark chocolate is also rich in magnesium and fiber. But steer clear of milk chocolate, which is high in butterfat and thus tends to raise cholesterol.
- Have a beer once a day – A published study found that men who drank one beer a day for one month lowered their cholesterol levels, increased their blood levels of heart-healthy antioxidants, and reduced their levels of fibrinogen, a protein that contributes to blood clots. Of course, red wine might be even better.
- Take a Vit B complex every morning – When Swiss researchers asked more than 200 men and women to take either a combination of three B vitamins (folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) or a placebo after they had surgery to open their arteries, they found that levels of homocysteine, a substance linked to an increased risk of heart disease, were 40 percent lower in those who took the vitamins. The placebo group had no change. Plus, the vitamin group had wider-open blood vessels than those taking the sugar pill.
- Tape-record your snores – If you hear yourself snoring (or if your sleeping partner has been kicking you a lot), make an appointment with your doctor. You may have sleep apnea, a condition in which your breathing stops hundreds of times throughout the night. It can lead to high blood pressure and other medical problems, and even increase your risk for heart attack and stroke.
- Go to bed early – A Harvard study of 70,000 women found that those who got less than seven hours of sleep had a slightly higher risk of heart disease. Researchers suspect lack of sleep increases stress hormones, raises blood pressure, and affects blood sugar levels. Keep your overall sleeping time to no more than nine hours, however. The same study found women sleeping nine or more hours had a slightly increased risk of heart disease. Sleeping too long can have other negative effects as well.
- Eat fish at least once a week – Have it grilled, sautéed, baked, or roasted—just have it. A study in April 2002 found that women who ate fish at least once a week were one-third less likely to have a heart attack or die of heart disease than those who ate fish only once a month. Other studies show similar benefits for men. Another major study found regular fish consumption reduced the risk of atrial fibrillation—rapid, irregular heartbeat—a major cause of sudden death.
- Eat a high-fiber breakfast at least four times a week – If you want to avoid heart disease, pay attention to dietary fiber. Those with high fiber diets appear to be at significantly lower risk for developing coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension, among other conditions. Simply increasing fiber intake can lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Dietary fiber intake provides many health benefits, yet most US adults eat less than half of the recommended amount. Here is how you can get more fiber in your diet without even trying.
- Sprinkle an ounce of ground flaxseed on your yogurt – This way you’ll be getting about 2 grams of omega-3 fatty acids, healthy fats that numerous studies have found help prevent heart disease and reduce your risk of dying suddenly from heart rhythm abnormalities.
- Make salad dressing with a tablespoon of flaxseed oil – It packs a whopping 7 grams of omega-3 fatty acids, which, as we’ve just mentioned, are a great way to improve your overall heart health.
- Drink at least 2 cups of tea a day – Black or green, it doesn’t seem to matter. At least, that’s the result of a Dutch study that found only 2.4 percent of 5,000 healthy Rotterdam residents who drank two or more cups of tea a day had a heart attack within six years, compared with 4.1 percent of those who never drank tea. Another major analysis of 17 studies on tea drinkers found three cups a day could slash the risk of a heart attack by 11 percent. Here is the best tea for every type of mood.
- Stir a handful of hazelnuts into a vegetable-and-chicken stir-fry – Just 1.5 ounces of these healthy nuts a day can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. Another hazelnut idea: Crush them and use to coat fish or chicken, then bake.
- Include beans or peas in your four dishes every week – Researchers found that people who followed this advice slashed their risk of heart disease by 22 percent compared to those who ate fewer legumes.
- Have sex – It counts as physical activity, which, of course, is good for your heart. And that may be why researchers found that men who have sex at least twice a week are less likely to have a stroke or other cardiovascular problems than men who have it less often. As the researchers put it: “Middle-aged men should be heartened to know that frequent sexual intercourse is not likely to result in a substantial increase in risk of strokes, and that some protection from fatal coronary events may be an added bonus.” Women probably stand to benefit too.Try these natural libido boosters to have even better sex.
- Take baby aspirin everyday – University of North Carolina researchers found that the tiny tablet slashes the risk of heart disease by nearly a third in people who have never had a heart attack or stroke but who were at increased risk (because they smoked, were overweight, had high blood pressure, or had some other risk factor). Just double-check with your doctor that there’s no reason for you not to take aspirin daily. If you’re avoiding aspirin, because of risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, you might want to read up on the supplement pycnogenol (pine bark extract), which is said to provide many of the same blood-thinning properties, without this risk.
- Eat 15 cherries a day – Studies find the anthocyanins (plant chemicals) that give cherries their scarlet color also work to lower levels of uric acid in blood, a marker for heart attacks and stroke. Cherries out of season? Try sprinkling dried cherries on your salad or substituting a cup of tart cherry juice for orange juice in the morning.
- Eat one cup of beans per day – Do this and you’ll be getting at least 300 micrograms (mcg) of folate. A study from Tulane in New Orleans found that people who consumed at least this much folate slashed their risk of stroke by 20 percent and their risk of heart disease by 13 percent more than those who got less than 136 mcg per day of the B vitamin. Not into beans? Try an orange (55 mcg), some raw baby spinach (58 mcg in 1 cup), romaine lettuce (62 mcg in 1 cup), or tomatoes (27 mcg in 1 cup).
- Eat an orange everyday – Or drink a glass of orange juice. Oranges, as you know, are a great source of vitamin C. Studies suggest diets high in this vitamin may reduce your risk of stroke, especially if you smoke. Tired of oranges? Substitute a bowlful of strawberries, a serving of brussels sprouts or broccoli, or a chopped red bell pepper—all excellent sources of vitamin C.
- Replace soda – The reason has to do with inflammation, the body’s response to damage or injury. Chronic inflammation, linked to heart disease, is significantly affected by what you eat. For instance, researchers found that drinking glucose-sweetened water triggered an inflammatory response in volunteers, but drinking the same calories in a glass of orange juice didn’t. They theorize that the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin C and various flavonoids in juice may provide some protection. Choose 100 percent juice instead of drinks that are mostly sweetened, flavored water. Other studies on orange juice find it can increase blood levels of heart-protective folate almost 45 percent and reduce levels of heart-damaging homocysteine by 11 percent.
- Drink an 8-ounce of water every 2 hours -The key in how to prevent heart disease could have to do with hydration. A study found that women who drank more than five glasses of water a day were half as likely to die from a heart attack as those who drank less than two. This is likely due to the fact that maintaining good hydration keeps blood flowing well; dehydration can cause sluggish blood flow and increase the risk of clots forming. Water works best when it comes to improving blood flow; soda is worthless.
- Cook with ginger or turmeric twice a week – They have anti-inflammatory benefits, and inflammation is a major contributor to heart disease. Here is what turmeric is really doing to your body.
- Go to the loo whenever you feel the urge – Research found that a full bladder causes your heart to beat faster and puts added stress on coronary arteries, triggering them to contract, which could lead to a heart attack in people who are vulnerable.
- Ask for next Friday or Monday off – Researchers analyzed data on more than 12,000 middle-aged men and found that those who took regular vacations sliced their risk of death from heart disease by a third. And no, taking along the cell phone, laptop, and a briefcase full of papers will not help you achieve the stress-reducing effects of a vacation that, in turn, reduces your risk of heart disease.
- Drive with the windows closed and the air conditioning on – This reduces your exposure to airborne pollutants, which a Harvard study found reduces something called “heart rate variability,” or the ability of your heart to respond to various activities and stresses. Reduced heart rate variability, also called HRV, has been associated with increased deaths among heart attack survivors as well as the general population. Find out how to prevent heart disease complications in the winter.
- Keep a bottle of multivitamins on your kitchen counter – Make the pills a regular addition to breakfast. After six months of taking daily multivitamins, participants in one study had significantly lower levels of a protein connected with inflammation than those who didn’t take a vitamin.
- Call a friend and arrange dinner – Wondering how to prevent heart disease? Ask a friend! The Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, which surveyed more than 17,000 people, found that those with the fewest social contacts were at a 50 percent higher risk for dying of cardiovascular disease. It appears that having a very close relationship with another person, whether it’s with a friend, lover, or relative, can halve the risk of a heart attack, even in someone who has already had a heart attack.
- Pay attention to heart-health basics – In the US, 50 percent of deaths from cardiovascular disease among adults age 45 to 79 were attributed to preventable risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol levels. High blood pressure and smoking were tied to the highest proportion of preventable deaths.
- Along with exercising every day, take a supplement – Make sure the supplement contains the amino-acid L-arginine and the antioxidant vitamins C and E. A study found that while moderate exercise alone reduced the development of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, adding L-arginine and the vitamins to the mix boosted the effects astronomically. The two—exercise and the supplements—have a synergistic effect in enhancing production of nitric oxide, which protects against a variety of heart-related problems.
- If you find trouble getting out of bed in the morning -.. or you have lost interest in normal activities, especially those that you used to enjoy, or just feel really blah, see your doctor. You may be depressed, and untreated depression significantly increases your risk for a heart attack.
- Adopt a dog – The power of furry friends to improve heart health is proven. Not only will a dog force you to be more active (think about all the extra walking you’ll be doing), but the companionship and unconditional affection a pooch provides has been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular problems. These are the secrets your pet isn’t telling you.
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